The problem of household waste is relevant all over the world. Tons of garbage are stored in landfills, which are often not properly equipped. Lack of sorting of raw materials has led to the fact that the waste, which requires a special method of recycling or disposal, emits toxic substances. The air, soil, and water are polluted.
It is possible to reduce the number of landfills by recycling recyclable raw materials. About 60% of all garbage is recyclable. Using recyclable materials will reduce the number of landfills, saving natural resources, reducing the emission of harmful substances.
Raw materials must be sorted before they can be recycled, because not all materials are suitable for reuse.
There are certain requirements for waste recycling and disposal.
It is used when the waste can be reused in industrial production. This method of recycling requires careful sorting of raw materials. Recycling helps to save energy, reduce pollution and reduce the consumption of natural resources.
To solve the problem of disposal and recycling of waste, new technologies are being developed. New equipment is being designed to reduce the emission of pollutants. Much attention is paid to the development of recycling of raw materials, non-traditional ways of its application.
Modern methods of utilization of production wastes make it possible to considerably reduce the negative impact on the environment. The technological process is organized in such a way that waste from one factory can be used as raw material at another factory.
There are compelling arguments in favor of separate waste collection. There are at least 4 of them:
• Protection of human rights. Few people think about what happens to the garbage that we take to the trash. All garbage that does not go to processing plants or any special institutions to be recycled, goes to the environment near cities and villages. There is an alternative to this scenario: you do not have to spoil someone’s life, because you can sort garbage.
• Protection of animal rights. People can move and not live near the landfill, but animals and birds confuse garbage with food. They die, and if any of the living species is lost, it greatly affects the entire ecosystem.
• Recycling. There are hundreds of processing plants. They can recycle waste paper into cardboard boxes, cullet into glass bottles, metal into ingots, etc. Many entrepreneurs are waiting for recyclables, and do not get them because in some countries there is no culture of separate collection.
• Garbage problem. We, adults, need to stop the problem that is looming over our children. When we put off dealing with garbage, we let them face a big problem, and we don’t have many options to stop it.
Everyone can do sorting — you need to start by finding your argument. Before you find one it will always be difficult for you to find time and effort for sorting. Secondly, you need to convince yourself to do it in spite of everything for some time, so that sorting becomes a habit. It is very important to learn to sort correctly: this means that all your waste must be clean and dry.
Raw materials requirements and where recycled materials are used
Plastic: There are 7 types of plastic. Each of them can be recycled separately. Plastic must always be labeled. Used for clothing, footwear, and other consumer goods.
Glass: Only glass bottles, cans are suitable if there are no additives in the production of new ones. Used in the production of new glass products, construction materials, sanitary ware.
Waste paper: Used for production of paper, cardboard, toilet paper, printing products
Wood: Waste from forestry and woodworking industries is used to produce fuel briquettes, energy, pulp and paper products, building materials, as well as materials of the energy and cellulose industries and construction materials
Waste oil: Food grade oils, automobile and transformer oils are recycled. Vegetable oil is used in the production of biodiesel, laundry soap, and paints. Automobile and transformer oils are used for making motor vehicle oils.
Electronics: Disassembled into parts and sorted by material. Non-metallic printed circuit boards are used in automotive and furniture industries, as well as in automotive, furniture, and construction material industries.
Batteries: Batteries of different sizes and types are recycled, including disposable batteries.
Secondary raw materials are used in metallurgy, pharmaceutical industry, engineering, chemical industry.
Metal and tin products :Waste of any metal is recyclable, except for the one damaged with radiation. It is used in the production of metal structures.
Crude oil: Pure crude oil without any additives is used in the refining process. Also used in the production of fuels and technical oils.
Waste recycling and disposal methods
Solid domestic waste varies by composition, duration of use, and degree of danger to the environment and humans. Based on this classification, the ways of processing household waste or its disposal are chosen.
Landfills are a protected area equipped with special buildings, designed for the collection and disposal of waste.
Open areas, remote from places of residence of people are chosen for landfills. No bodies of water should be located nearby. A sanitary protection zone is created on an area of 3 km. The distance between the buried waste and groundwater must be at least 2 meters.
The landfills use the above-ground and underground methods of burying waste. For above-ground storage the garbage with a minimum content of harmful substances is suitable. Specially equipped mines or boreholes are used for underground disposal. Radioactive and hazardous waste is placed there.
Many countries reject landfills because this method of waste disposal is detrimental to the environment and human health.
This method involves disposing of waste by applying high temperatures. There are several ways of thermal treatment of garbage.
The method of incineration is divided into two types:
1. Fire. Disposal takes place at a temperature of at least 1300 degrees C%. Used for raw materials that burn on their own.
2. Fire oxidation method. This method consists of several complex chemical steps and is used mainly for solids and paste-like products.
In the case of fire combustion, the main pollutant is the gas that contains volatile metals. Examples are cadmium and lead. After exposure to high temperatures, these components are converted into chlorides. On the other hand, the ash and slag left after the disposal of non-volatile metals contain comparatively small amounts of degradable substances.
In the fire oxidation method, toxic waste is disposed of without any byproducts. The ash and smoke produced by combustion are harmless.
Pyrolysis is the utilization of waste using high temperatures in the absence of oxygen. The reaction produces elements with a low molecular weight. Pyrolysis is of two types:
1. low temperature pyrolysis. The process takes place at temperatures up to 900 degrees Celsius;
2. high temperature pyrolysis. This method requires a temperature above 900 degrees Celsius.
Before disposal, the waste is sorted, and coarse debris, as well as ferrous and nonferrous metals removed. The raw material is then shredded and dried. After pyrolysis, the gas temperature is reduced.
Composting is a biotechnological waste recycling process in which organic products are utilized by aerobic organisms. The process produces valuable compost, which is then used in agriculture.
There are two types of composting:
Both methods use the same principle: a warm environment with air access is created. As a result, aerobic bacteria start actively reproduce and recycle organic raw materials.
Processing waste by compacting it. Briquetted waste is easy to transport and store. Mainly used in agriculture and industry.